Hyperion Sources • Literature on Inclusions in Gemstones

by Lotus Gemology
Hyperion • The Literature of Inclusions in Gemstones

For those who wish to explore the literature of inclusions in gemstones further, we have selected the following articles and books that are of particular merit. Most of these are cited in the Lotus Gemology Hyperion Inclusion Database, but are listed below in a more convenient summary format. Many of the links will allow you to download a PDF copy of the original article.

You go from form… into the formless… into the void…
It is eternally quiet… it is eternally quiet… it never was…
Richard Alpert, Be Here Now

Monographs on inclusions in gems

  • Chikayama, A. (1973) [Gem Identification By The Inclusion]. Tokyo, Japan, Gemmological Association of All Japan, in Japanese, 246 pp.; RWHL.
  • Goutiere, A., de (1996) Wonders Within Gemstones: The Elusive Beauty of Gemstone Inclusions. Chicago, Gemworld International, 135 pp.; RWHL*.
  • Goutiere, A., de (2014) Wonders Within Gemstones II. Friesen Press, 72 pp.; RWHL.
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1953) Inclusions as a Means of Gemstone Identification. Los Angeles, GIA, 220 pp.; RWHL*.
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL*.
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zürich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, revised Jan., 1992; German edition, 1986 (Bildatlas der Einschlüsse Edelsteinen), 532 pp.; RWHL*.
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp.; RWHL*. Vol. 2 for spinel
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL*. Vol. 3 for corundum
  • Lai Tai-An (1995) Gemstone Inclusions Identification. Taipei, Gemological Institute of Lai Tai-An, 343 pp.; RWHL*.
  • Roedder, E. (1972) Composition of fluid inclusions. US Geological Survey Professional Paper, No. 440JJ, 164 pp.; RWHL* 
  • Roedder, E. (1984) Fluid Inclusions. Reviews in Mineralogy, Washington, DC, Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy: Vol. 12, 646 pp.; RWHL*.
  • Samson, L., Anderson, A. et al. (2003) Fluid Inclusions: Analysis and Interpretation. Ottawa, Canada, Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Series Volume 32, 374 pp.; RWHL.
  • Smith, F.G. (1953) Historical Development of Inclusion Thermometry. Toronto, Univ. of Toronto Press, 149 pp.; RWHL.

A selection of monographs on inclusions in gems and minerals in the library of Lotus Gemology's Richard W. Hughes

A selection of monographs on inclusions in gems and minerals in the library of Lotus Gemology's Richard W. Hughes.

Inclusion photomicrography techniques

The world's foremost authority on inclusions in gemstones, John Koivula, with his advanced Nikon SMZ25 stereoscopic microscope with built-in image stacking capability. Image stacking is commonly used today to increase the depth of field for a medium that has extreme limits due to the high magnification.

The world's foremost authority on inclusions in gemstones, John Koivula, with his advanced Nikon SMZ25 stereoscopic microscope with built-in image stacking capability at the Gemological Institute of America's Carlsbad, CA laboratory. Image stacking is commonly used today to increase the depth-of-field for a medium that has extreme limits due to the high magnification. While such a photomicrographic system costs more than US$25,000, exceptional results can still be obtained with systems costing far less. Like all photography, the most important element is the person behind the lens and their vision to show us something in a way we've never seen it before. What separates experts from amateurs is not the equipment they use, but the manner in which they use it. John Koivula can produce superb photomicrographs from even a primitive system because he is an artist and can paint in a variety of mediums of various resolutlions. This is what separates fine art from idle scribbling. John Koivula is a master artist, and also a master scientist. This rare combination of sensitivtiy to both art and science have made John's work transcend each genre, expanding the interest in these tiny windows on the birth of our planet and life itself. Photo: Kevin Schumacher, GIA. Click on the image for a larger view.

Historical articles on inclusions in gems and crystals

David Brewster was one of the first scientists to explore the internal world of crystals

David Brewster was one of the first scientists to explore the internal world of crystals.

General references on the inclusions of ruby, sapphire and spinel

Key to references

  • RWHL: References in the personal library of Lotus Gemology's Richard W. Hughes
  • Seen: References not in the personal library of Lotus Gemology's Richard W. Hughes, but having been read by him
  • Not seen: References not seen by Lotus Gemology's Richard W. Hughes
  • : References of particular merit

 

 

Acknowlegements

Lotus Gemology thanks organizations such as the GIA and Gem-A for their decades of publishing and especially for making many of their publications freely available for students and researchers. A special thanks to Elise Skalwold, who has helped us track down copies of many rare publications.

 

Back to top