by Richard W. Hughes
Ownership of Words  |  An Essay on Padparadscha Sapphire

The definition of padparadscha sapphire, from early to modern times.

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by John I. Koivula & Richard W. Hughes
Following the Silk Road  |  Rutile in Corundum

A discussion of rutile silk in corundum and its use in detecting artificial heat treatment. Careful examination of these "silk" inclusions can provide vital clues to unmask heated gems.

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by Richard W. Hughes
Proletarian Gemology  |  The Blue Filter

Introducing the blue filter as a gemological tool to separate natural and Verneuil synthetic yellow sapphires.

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