by Richard W. Hughes
Under the Hammer  |  Ruby & Sapphire Auction Records

World auction records for ruby, sapphire and spinel.

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by Richard W. Hughes
Ownership of Words  |  An Essay on Padparadscha Sapphire

The definition of padparadscha sapphire, from early to modern times.

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by Lotus Gemology
From Peacock to Pigeon's Blood: Deconstructing Lotus Color Types

A brief description of the color types for ruby and sapphire used at Lotus Gemology.

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by Richard W. Hughes
从孔雀蓝到鸽血红 细数宝石之美 • 红蓝宝石之动人色泽

Chinese-language translation of Lotus Gemology's ruby and sapphire color types.

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by Lotus Gemology
From Peacock to Pigeon's Blood: Deconstructing Lotus Color Types

บทคัดย่อเรื่องการจำแนกสีทับทิมและแซฟไฟร์ ที่ใช้ในโลตัสเจมโมโลจี

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by Richard W. Hughes, Auslan Ishmael, Flavie Isatelle & Peter Wang

The history of the Lao sapphire mines at Ban Huay Xai is detailed, along with modern mining by Hong Kong based Sino Resources Mining Corp. Ltd. from 2006–2012.

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by E. Billie Hughes

A Burmese sapphire shows a celestial scene both externally and internally.

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by E. Billie Hughes

An included calcite crystal within an unheated Burmese ruby displays dramatic twinning planes.

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by E. Billie Hughes

Surface-reaching growth tubes in a sapphire provide insight into the gem’s origin and treatment history.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Oiled Ruby

A ruby’s surface-reaching cavity is filled with red oil.

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