by E. Billie Hughes
Six-Rayed Star in Sapphire from Myanmar

A Burmese sapphire shows a celestial scene both externally and internally.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Mogok Ruby With Remarkable Twinned Calcite Inclusion

An included calcite crystal within an unheated Burmese ruby displays dramatic twinning planes.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Sapphire With Growth Tube Cluster • Sapphire Inclusions

Surface-reaching growth tubes in a sapphire provide insight into the gem’s origin and treatment history.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Oiled Ruby: A Remarkable Visual • Ruby Inclusions

A ruby’s surface-reaching cavity is filled with red oil.

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by Richard W. Hughes
Crystal Optics • Gem and Crystal Optical Properties • Lotus Gemology

The optical properties of crystals are intimately related to their crystal structures. This article examines the precise relationship between optic character and sign and crystal structure.

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by E. Billie Hughes
A Sapphire's Secret

At the Lotus Gemology laboratory in Bangkok, we often get parcels of relatively uniform stones. But sometimes it is in this routine testing that we uncover surprises.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Beyond Octahedra • Inclusions in Spinel

A look into the world of spinel inclusions that goes beyond simple octahedral crystals.

 

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by E. Billie Hughes and Richard W. Hughes
Corundum Inclusions • A Crystal Registry


Solid inclusions have been used by gemologists as a means of determining origin. While there is a great deal of overlap from one source to another, there are also important differences. For example, while apatite has been identified in sapphire from Madagascar, Myanmar and Sri Lanka, apatite has never been identified in sapphire from Kashmir. Thus the purpose of this article is to give a full listing of solid inclusions in gem corundums from around the world, with each occurrence fully referenced. This is provided with the goal of making origin determination of ruby and sapphire more accurate.

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by Lotus Gemology
Hyperion • The Literature of Inclusions in Gemstones

For those who wish to explore the literature of inclusions in gemstones further, we have selected the following articles and books that are of particular merit. Most of these are cited in the Lotus Gemology Hyperion Inclusion Database, but are listed below in a more convenient summary format. Many of the links will allow you to download a PDF copy of the original article.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Lotus Gemology report lookup guide

The best way to check the authenticity of a Lotus report is with online report verification.

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