by Richard W. Hughes
Pleochroism in Faceted Gems • An Introduction • Lotus Gemology

The phenomenon of pleochroism in doubly refractive (DR) gemstones is described, as it relates to overall color appearance in the context of faceted gems. With strongly pleochroic gems, pleochroism can be seen in faceted gems, even if the table facet is oriented perpendicular to an optic axis. This is because facets change the direction of light as it moves through the gem.

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by Richard W. Hughes
Ruby, Pink Sapphire & Padparadscha • Walking the Line • Lotus Gemology

An examination of the problem of separating pink sapphire and padparadscha from ruby.

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by Richard W. Hughes, with Loretta Castoro, Hpone-Phyo K. Nyunt & Lore Kiefert
FTIR in Gem Testing • FTIR Intrigue • Lotus Gemology

The use of Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in gem identification, with examples of sapphire & jadeite.

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by Richard W. Hughes & John Koivula
Hunting the Mother Lode Abroad • Gemological Travel

When it comes to gemology, whether it is practiced in the lab or jewelry store, the importance of traveling to the source cannot be emphasized enough. Not only is information more accurate at the source, but the experiences will also make you a better salesperson.

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by Richard W. Hughes
Fun Down Under • Lenny Cram's Opal Mine • Lotus Gemology

The believe-it-or-not story of Australia's Lenny Cram and his opal mine in a mason jar.

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by Richard W. Hughes
The Skin Game • Beryllium Diffusion in Sapphire

The early history of beryllium diffusion in sapphire, starting with the 2001 appearance of large numbers of padparadscha sapphires in the Thai gem market.

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by Richard W. Hughes & Nickolai Kouznetsov
From Russia with Jade

Jadeite jade is a stone intimately associated with Burma (Myanmar). But there are deposits in other countries. This article details Russia's jadeite deposits in the Polar Urals and Khakassia.

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by Richard W. Hughes & Fred Ward
Heaven and Hell • The Quest for Jade in Upper Burma

An account of the authors' 1997 visit to Burma's jade mines.

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by Richard W. Hughes, Olivier Galibert, Mark Smith & Dr. Thet Oo
Tracing the Green Line • A Journey to Burma’s Jade Mines

In 1996, several gemologists set off for Burma's remote jade mines, the first visit by foreigners since the early 1960's. This is the story of their epic journey.

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by Richard W. Hughes & U Hla Win
Burmese Sapphire Giants

A brief history of Burmese (Myanmar) sapphires, along with details of some of the major pieces of yore.

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