Coming Soon Search Module

by E. Billie Hughes

Working On Coming Soon Search Module

Show Hide advanced search

Solid Type Country/Origin
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Umba

Record No:    268

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in situ in desilicated pegmatites cutting a serpentinite pipe and from alluvials derived from that pipe

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, P.C. (1974) Garnet, corundum, and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanza­nia. Scripta Geologica, Vol. 20, pp. 19–30; RWHL* see pp. 26–27
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Songea

Record No:    269

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in secondary deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 128
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Thailand/Cambodia, Chanthaburi/Trat/Pailin

Record No:    270

Geology:    Sapphires and rubies found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1971) New analytical results of the inclusions in Siam rubies. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 12, No. 7, July, pp. 242–252; RWHL* see pp. 244, 247–249
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Thailand (Siam), Bo Ploi, Kanchanaburi

Record No:    271

Geology:    Sapphires and rubies found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gunawardene, M. and Chawla, S.S. (1984) Sapphires from Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 228–239; RWHL see pp. 235–236
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
USA (Montana), Dry Cottonwood

Record No:    273

Geology:    Sapphire in alluvials believed derived from igneous dikes of unknown composition

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 226
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Yen Bai, Quy Chau

Record No:    274

Geology:    Yen Bai: Rubies found in alluvial Quaternary gravels derived from mineralized marble, or directly from the marble itself; Quy Chau: Rubies found in alluvial gravels from unknown source rocks (probably marble)

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Kane, R.E., McClure, S.F. et  al. (1991) Rubies and fancy sapphires from Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 136–155; RWHL* see pp. 144, 151
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Thailand (Siam), Chanthaburi/Trat

Record No:    275

Geology:    Sapphires and rubies found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Promwongnan, S. and Sutthirat, C. (2019) Mineral inclusions in ruby and sapphire from the Bo Welu gem deposit in Chanthaburi, Thailand. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall, pp. 354–369; RWHL* see pp. 357, 359
Rhabdophane Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Australia, Kings Plains, NSW

Record No:    276

Geology:    Sapphires found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts and pyroclastics

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Guo, J., O’Reilly, S.Y. et al. (1996) Corundum from basaltic terrains: A mineral inclusion approach to the enigma. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 122, pp. 368–386; RWHL* see pp. 371–372, 376–377
Staurolite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar,

Record No:    277

Geology:    Ruby in secondary deposits believed to be associated with amphibolite

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Hughes, E.B. (2019) [Staurolite in Madagascar ruby]. In Jewellery and Jadeite, Tiancheng International, Hong Kong • Spring Auction, 29 May, p. 16; RWHL see pp. 16
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Afghanistan, Jegdalek

Record No:    278

Geology:    Ruby in situ in metamorphosed dolomitic limestone cut by granitic intrusions of Oligocene age

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Barthoux, J. (1933) Lapis-lazuli et rubis balais des cipolins afghans. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences de France, Vol. 196, 10 April, pp.  1131–1134; RWHL see pp. 1133
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Australia, New England District, NSW

Record No:    279

Geology:    Sapphires found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts and pyroclastics

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Coenraads, R.R. (1992) Sapphires and rubies associated with volcanic provinces: Inclusions and surface features shed light on their origin. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 70–78; RWHL* see pp. 71
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Colombia, Mercaderes–Río Mayo

Record No:    280

Geology:    Secondary deposits derived from an unidentified source rock

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Keller, P.C., Koivula, J.I. et al. (1985) Sapphire from the Mercaderes–Río Mayo Area, Cauca, Colombia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring, pp. 20–25; RWHL* see pp. 23–24
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Greenland,

Record No:    281

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Thirangoon, K. (2009) Ruby and Pink Sapphire from Aappaluttoq, Greenland: Status of on-going research. Gemological Institute of America, March, 18 pp.; RWHL see pp. 8
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Madagascar, Vatomandry

Record No:    282

Geology:    Ruby in deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 138
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Vatomandry

Record No:    283

Geology:    Ruby in deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 138
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Madagascar, Vatomandry

Record No:    284

Geology:    Ruby in deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Schmetzer, K. (2001) Rubies from the Vatomandry area, eastern Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 27, No. 7, July, pp. 409–416; RWHL* see pp. 413
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Madagascar, Vatomandry

Record No:    286

Geology:    Ruby in deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Schmetzer, K. (2001) Rubies from the Vatomandry area, eastern Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 27, No. 7, July, pp. 409–416; RWHL* see pp. 413
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Kenya, Mangari

Record No:    287

Geology:    Ruby derived from desilicated pegmatites cutting serpentinite (Penny Lane mine) and contact between the serpentinite and the pegmatite (John Saul mine)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Key, R.M. and Ochieng, J.O. (1991) The growth of rubies in southeast Kenya. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, No. 8, pp. 484–496; RWHL* see pp. 488
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Kenya, Mangari

Record No:    289

Geology:    Ruby derived from desilicated pegmatites cutting serpentinite (Penny Lane mine) and contact between the serpentinite and the pegmatite (John Saul mine)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 121
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Madagascar, Andilamena (Moramanga)/Ambosary

Record No:    290

Geology:    Ruby, fancy and blue sapphire in secondary deposits associated with amphibolite

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 131–132
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Madagascar, Andilamena (Moramanga)/Ambosary

Record No:    291

Geology:    Ruby, fancy and blue sapphire in secondary deposits associated with amphibolite

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 84
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Ambosary

Record No:    293

Geology:    Ruby, fancy and blue sapphire in secondary deposits associated with amphibolite

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 131
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Malawi, Chimwadzulu Hill

Record No:    294

Geology:    Corundums in situ in an epidotized amphibolite, embedded in a coarse aggregate of hornblende crystals, which is itself enclosed in a fine-grained granular matrix of epidote and plagioclase

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hughes, R.W., Manorotkul, W. & Hughes, E.B. (2017) Ruby & Sapphire: A Gemologist's Guide. Lotus Publishing, Bangkok, 816 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 510–511
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Malawi, Chimwadzulu Hill

Record No:    295

Geology:    Corundums in situ in an epidotized amphibolite, embedded in a coarse aggregate of hornblende crystals, which is itself enclosed in a fine-grained granular matrix of epidote and plagioclase

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hughes, R.W., Manorotkul, W. & Hughes, E.B. (2017) Ruby & Sapphire: A Gemologist's Guide. Lotus Publishing, Bangkok, 816 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 510–511
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    296

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1953) Inclusions as a Means of Gemstone Identification. Los Angeles, GIA, 220 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 99, 103
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Myanmar (Burma), Mong Hsu

Record No:    297

Geology:    Ruby occurs in situ in marbles and alluvial deposits derived from the same

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 83, 87–88
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Myanmar (Burma), Mong Hsu

Record No:    298

Geology:    Ruby occurs in situ in marbles and alluvial deposits derived from the same

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 85–86
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Pakistan, Hunza

Record No:    300

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in situ in calcitic or dolomitic marble

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1982) Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, ruby and spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall, pp. 123–129; RWHL* see pp. 137
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Rwanda, Cyangugu

Record No:    301

Geology:    Sapphire in deposits associated with alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Krzemnicki, M.S., Hänni, H.A. et al. (1996) Investigations on sapphires from an alkali basalt, South West Rwanda. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 90–106; RWHL* see pp. 98–99
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    302

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1940) Characteristics of Ceylon rubies. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 121–124; RWHL see pp. 121–122
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    303

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 31
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Tajikistan, Snezhny

Record No:    304

Geology:    Ruby found in mineralized zone of marbles

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Henn, U., Bank, H. et al. (1990) Rubine aus dem Pamir-Gebirge, UdSSR. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 201–205; RWHL* see pp.
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Tanzania, Songea

Record No:    305

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in secondary deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Johnson, M.L., Koivula, J.I. et al. (1999) Gem News: Rubies from Songea. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 35, No. 4, Winter, p. 215; RWHL see pp. 215
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Tanzania, Tunduru

Record No:    306

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in secondary deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Chitty, W. (2009) A Study of Sapphires and Rubies from Tanzania’s Tunduru District. Kingston University, London, BSc Thesis in Gemology and Applied Mineralogy, 32 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 8–9
Garnet Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - X₃Z₂(SiO₄)₃
    Notes:X = Mg, Ca, Fe(II), Mn(II), etc.; Z = Al, Fe(III), Cr(III), V(III) etc.; Trace amounts of Sn may replace Fe(III)
    Polymorphs:
Tanzania, Songea

Record No:    307

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in secondary deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Lotus Gemology Hyperion database see pp.
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
USA (Montana), Dry Cottonwood, Missouri River, Rock Creek, Yogo

Record No:    308

Geology:    Yogo: Sapphire in situ and from alluvials derived from a lamprophyric rock intruded into limestone; Other: Sapphire in alluvials believed derived from igneous dikes of unknown composition

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Dunn, P.J. (1976) Gem Notes: Inclusions in sapphires from Yogo Gulch, Montana. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 15, No. 7, Fall, p. 200; RWHL see pp. 200
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Vietnam, Yen Bai/Quy Chau

Record No:    309

Geology:    Yen Bai: Rubies found in alluvial Quaternary gravels derived from mineralized marble, or directly from the marble itself; Quy Chau: Rubies found in alluvial gravels from unknown source rocks (probably marble)

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Kane, R.E., McClure, S.F. et  al. (1991) Rubies and fancy sapphires from Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 136–155; RWHL* see pp. 144, 151
Samarskite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Australia, Anakie, QLD

Record No:    310

Geology:    Sapphires found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts and pyroclastics

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Guo, J., O’Reilly, S.Y. et al. (1996) Corundum from basaltic terrains: A mineral inclusion approach to the enigma. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 122, pp. 368–386; RWHL* see pp. 371–372, 379
Scapolite Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - Na₄Al₃Si₉O₂₄Cl to Ca₄Al₆Si₆O₂₄CO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Series between Marialite and Meionite
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    314

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Kammerling, R.C., Scarratt, K. et  al. (1994) Myanmar and its gems—An update. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 3–40; RWHL* see pp. 28
Sillimanite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Sillimanite Orthorhombic Al₂(SiO₄)O
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Andalusite, Kyanite
Greenland, Aappaluttoq

Record No:    315

Geology:    Ruby in an amphibole-rich rock (tschermakitic)

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Thirangoon, K. (2009) Ruby and Pink Sapphire from Aappaluttoq, Greenland: Status of on-going research. Gemological Institute of America, March, 18 pp.; RWHL see pp. 8, 15
Sillimanite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Sillimanite Orthorhombic Al₂(SiO₄)O
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Andalusite, Kyanite
Madagascar, Marosely

Record No:    316

Geology:    Ruby & sapphire in alluvial deposits of metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Cartier, L. (2009) Ruby and sapphire from Marosely, Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 31, No. 5–8, pp. 171–179; RWHL see pp. 172
Sillimanite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Sillimanite Orthorhombic Al₂(SiO₄)O
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Andalusite, Kyanite
East Africa, Unknown

Record No:    317

Geology:    Primary and secondary ruby associated with amphibolite

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schneider, V. and Smith, T. (2018) G&G Microworld: Sillimanite in ruby. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 54, No. 4, Winter, pp. 448–449; RWHL see pp. 448–449
Sillimanite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Sillimanite Orthorhombic Al₂(SiO₄)O
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Andalusite, Kyanite
Thailand (Siam), Chanthaburi/Trat

Record No:    318

Geology:    Sapphires and rubies found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Promwongnan, S. and Sutthirat, C. (2019) An update on mineral inclusions and their composition in ruby from the Bo Rai gem field in Trat Province, eastern Thailand. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 7, pp. 634–645; RWHL* see pp. 641–642
Smectite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Vermiculite Monoclinic Mg₀.₇(Mg,Fe,Al)₆(Si,Al)₈O₂₀(OH)₄ · 8H₂O
Tanzania, Umba

Record No:    319

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in situ in desilicated pegmatites cutting a serpentinite pipe and from alluvials derived from that pipe

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, P.C. (1974) Garnet, corundum, and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanza­nia. Scripta Geologica, Vol. 20, pp. 19–30; RWHL* see pp. 19–21, 29
Sodalite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Lazurite Isometric Na₆Ca₂(Al₆Si₆O₂₄)(SO₄,S,S₂,S₃,Cl,OH)₂
Myanmar (Burma), Nanyazeik

Record No:    320

Geology:    Ruby in residual deposits derived from crystalline limestones surrounded by granite intrusions

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Renfro, N. and Pardieu, V. (2012) Lab Notes: Lazurite inclusions in ruby. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 1, Spring, pp. 51–52; RWHL see pp. 50–51
Sphalerite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    321

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 114
Sphalerite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
USA (Montana), Dry Cottonwood

Record No:    322

Geology:    Sapphire in alluvials believed derived from igneous dikes of unknown composition

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Buter, E. et al. (2015) Alluvial sapphires from Montana: Inclusions, geochemistry, and indications of a metamorphic origin. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 51, No. 4, Winter, pp. 370–391; RWHL* see pp. 379
Sulphur Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Sulphur Orthorhombic S₈
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Rosickýite, Sulphur-β
Myanmar (Burma),

Record No:    343

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Fritsch, E. and Rossman, G.P. (1990) New technologies of the 1980s: Their impact in gemology. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring, pp. 64–75; RWHL see pp. 73
Tialite
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Tialite - Al₂TiO₅
India, Karnataka

Record No:    344

Geology:    Ruby from deposits derived from anorthosite-gabbro ultramafic complexes

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2016) Tialite (Al2TiO5) may cause asterism. ICGL Newsletter, No. 1, Summer, pp. 6–8; RWHL see pp. 6–8
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
India, Karnataka

Record No:    346

Geology:    Ruby from deposits derived from anorthosite-gabbro ultramafic complexes

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2016) Tialite (Al2TiO5) may cause asterism. ICGL Newsletter, No. 1, Summer, pp. 6–8; RWHL see pp. 6–8
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Ilmenite Trigonal Fe²⁺TiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Wangdaodeite
India, Karnataka

Record No:    347

Geology:    Ruby from deposits derived from anorthosite-gabbro ultramafic complexes

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2016) Tialite (Al2TiO5) may cause asterism. ICGL Newsletter, No. 1, Summer, pp. 6–8; RWHL see pp. 6–8
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
India, Karnataka

Record No:    348

Geology:    Ruby from deposits derived from anorthosite-gabbro ultramafic complexes

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2016) Tialite (Al2TiO5) may cause asterism. ICGL Newsletter, No. 1, Summer, pp. 6–8; RWHL see pp. 6–8
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified -
India, Karnataka

Record No:    349

Geology:    Ruby from deposits derived from anorthosite-gabbro ultramafic complexes

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2016) Tialite (Al2TiO5) may cause asterism. ICGL Newsletter, No. 1, Summer, pp. 6–8; RWHL see pp. 6–8
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Afghanistan, Jegdalek

Record No:    350

Geology:    Ruby in situ in metamorphosed dolomitic limestone cut by granitic intrusions of Oligocene age

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Barthoux, J. (1933) Lapis-lazuli et rubis balais des cipolins afghans. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences de France, Vol. 196, 10 April, pp.  1131–1134; RWHL see pp. 1133
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    351

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands. Sapphires occur in alluvial deposits derived from granitic pegmatites, or rarely corundum syenites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1969) On the nature of mineral inclusions in gemstones. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 11, No. 5, Jan., pp. 149–192; RWHL* see pp. 187, 190
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tajikistan, Snezhny

Record No:    352

Geology:    Ruby found in mineralized zone of marbles

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Smith, C.P. (1998) Rubies and pink sapphires from the Pamir Range in Tajikistan, former USSR. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 103–109; RWHL see pp. 104, 107
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Yen Bai

Record No:    353

Geology:    Rubies found in alluvial Quaternary gravels derived from mineralized marble, or directly from the marble itself

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Khoi, N.N., Sutthirat, C. et al. (2011) Ruby and sapphire from the Tan Huong-Truc Lau area, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 47, No. 3, Fall, pp. 182–195; RWHL* see pp. 193
Topaz - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Topaz Orthorhombic Al₂(SiO₄)(F,OH)₂
USA (Montana), Rock Creek

Record No:    354

Geology:    Sapphire in alluvials believed derived from igneous dikes of unknown composition

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Buter, E. et al. (2015) Alluvial sapphires from Montana: Inclusions, geochemistry, and indications of a metamorphic origin. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 51, No. 4, Winter, pp. 370–391; RWHL* see pp. 377, 379–380
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
India (Kashmir), Sumjam

Record No:    355

Geology:    Sapphire in situ and in secondary deposits derived from a pegmatite associated with actinolite-tremolite lenses

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Mallet, F.R. (1882) On sapphires recently discovered in the North-West Himalaya. Records, Geological Survey of India, Vol. 15, Part 2, pp. 138–141; RWHL* see pp. 139–140
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Tajikistan, Not specified

Record No:    356

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Palke, A.C., Saeseaw, S. et al. (2019) Geographic origin determination of ruby. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 580–612; RWHL* see pp. 590
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Vietnam, Yen Bai

Record No:    357

Geology:    Rubies found in alluvial Quaternary gravels derived from mineralized marble, or directly from the marble itself

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Khoi, N.N., Sutthirat, C. et al. (2011) Ruby and sapphire from the Tan Huong-Truc Lau area, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 47, No. 3, Fall, pp. 182–195; RWHL* see pp. 193
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Andranondambo

Record No:    358

Geology:    Sapphire in metamorphic skarn-type deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 251, 253
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Australia, Kings Plains, NSW

Record No:    359

Geology:    Sapphires found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts and pyroclastics

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Guo, J., O’Reilly, S.Y. et al. (1996) Corundum from basaltic terrains: A mineral inclusion approach to the enigma. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 122, pp. 368–386; RWHL* see pp. 371–372, 377–380
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
India (Kashmir), Sumjam

Record No:    360

Geology:    Sapphire in situ and in secondary deposits derived from a pegmatite associated with actinolite-tremolite lenses

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Hänni, H.A. (1990) A contribution to the distinguishing characteristics of sapphire from Kashmir. Journal of Gemmology, Vol.  22, No.  2, pp.  67–75; RWHL* see pp. 73–74
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Ilakaka

Record No:    361

Geology:    Ruby & sapphire of virtually all colors in alluvial deposits of unknown metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 137
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    362

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 133
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
USA (Montana), Unspecified

Record No:    363

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Buter, E. et al. (2015) Alluvial sapphires from Montana: Inclusions, geochemistry, and indications of a metamorphic origin. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 51, No. 4, Winter, pp. 370–391; RWHL* see pp. 379
Vesuvianite Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Vesuvianite Tetragonal Ca₁₉Fe³⁺Al₄(Al₆Mg₂)(☐₄)☐[Si₂O₇]₄[(SiO₄)₁₀]O(OH)₉
Myanmar (Burma), Unspecified

Record No:    364

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Renfro, N. and Koivula, J.I. (2017) G&G MicroWorld: Vesuvianite in Burmese ruby. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 53, No. 4, Winter, p. 469; RWHL* see pp. 469
Wollastonite Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Wollastonite Triclinic CaSiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Breyite, Pseudowollastonite
Madagascar, Andranondambo

Record No:    365

Geology:    Sapphire in metamorphic skarn-type deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 256
Xenotime Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Ambosary, Andilamena, Ilakaka

Record No:    366

Geology:    Ruby & sapphire in alluvial deposits of metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 131, 133, 134, 137, 261–263
Xenotime Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    367

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 289, 299
Xenotime Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Tunduru

Record No:    368

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in secondary deposits of unknown metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Chitty, W. (2009) A Study of Sapphires and Rubies from Tanzania’s Tunduru District. Kingston University, London, BSc Thesis in Gemology and Applied Mineralogy, 32 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 12, 14
Zeolite Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
USA (Montana), Missouri River, Rock Creek, Yogo

Record No:    369

Geology:    Yogo: Sapphire in situ and from alluvials derived from a lamprophyric rock intruded into limestone; Other: Sapphire in alluvials believed derived from igneous dikes of unknown composition

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 345, 347
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Cambodia, Pailin

Record No:    370

Geology:    Sapphires and rubies found in alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 128
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    371

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Carbonin, S., Sbrignadello, G. and Ajo, D. (1998) An interdisciplinary approach to identifying solid inclusions in corundum: thorite in a ‘Sri Lanka’ sapphire. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 4, October, pp. 262–264; RWHL see pp. 262–264
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Afghanistan, Jegdalek

Record No:    372

Geology:    Ruby in situ in metamorphosed dolomitic limestone cut by granitic intrusions of Oligocene age

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Bowersox, G.W., Foord, E.E., Laurs, B.L., Shigley, J.E. and Smith, C.P. (2000) Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 36, No. 2, Summer, pp. 110–126; RWHL* see pp. 118, 120
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Australia, Not specified

Record No:    373

Geology:    Sapphires found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts and pyroclastics

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1982) Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, ruby and spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall, pp. 123–129; RWHL* see pp. 338
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Australia, New England District, NSW

Record No:    374

Geology:    Sapphires found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts and pyroclastics

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Coenraads, R.R. (1992) Sapphires and rubies associated with volcanic provinces: Inclusions and surface features shed light on their origin. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 70–78; RWHL* see pp. 76–77
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Cambodia, Pailin

Record No:    375

Geology:    Sapphires and rubies found in alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Saeseaw, S., Sangsawong, S. et al. (2017) An In-Depth Study of Blue Sapphires from Pailin, Cambodia. Gemological Institute of America, Bangkok, 22 December, 45 pp.; RWHL see pp. 15, 23
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
China, Shandong

Record No:    376

Geology:    Sapphire in secondary deposits derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Diep, P.T.M. (2015) Internal characteristics, chemical compounds and spectroscopy of sapphire as single crystals. Mainz University doctorate thesis; 140 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 53–54
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
India (Kashmir), Sumjam

Record No:    378

Geology:    Sapphire in situ and in secondary deposits derived from a pegmatite associated with actinolite-tremolite lenses

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Phukan, S. (1966) Studies on inclusions in some Indian gemstones. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 10, No. 1, January, pp. 1–7; RWHL* see pp. 1, 3–4
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Kenya, Lodwar, Lake Turkana

Record No:    379

Geology:    Sapphire in alluvial deposits apparently derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 220
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Laos, Huay Xai

Record No:    380

Geology:    Sapphires found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Diep, P.T.M. (2015) Internal characteristics, chemical compounds and spectroscopy of sapphire as single crystals. Mainz University doctorate thesis; 140 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 53, 55
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Ambosary

Record No:    381

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in alluvial deposits derived from unknown metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 131
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Andranondambo

Record No:    382

Geology:    Sapphire in metamorphic skarn-type deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 251
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Diego region in the north

Record No:    383

Geology:    Sapphire in secondary deposits derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Johnson, M.L. and Koivula, J.I. (1997) Gem News: Sapphires from northern Madagascar. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter, p. 305; RWHL see pp. 305
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Andapa

Record No:    384

Geology:    Sapphire in secondary deposits derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Diep, P.T.M. (2015) Internal characteristics, chemical compounds and spectroscopy of sapphire as single crystals. Mainz University doctorate thesis; 140 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 53–54
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Ilakaka

Record No:    385

Geology:    Ruby & sapphire of virtually all colors in alluvial deposits of unknown metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Milisenda, C., Henn, U. et al. (2001) New gemstone occurrences in the south-west of Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 27, No. 7, July, pp. 385–394; RWHL* see pp. 392
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Marosely

Record No:    386

Geology:    Ruby & sapphire in alluvial deposits of unknown metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Cartier, L. (2009) Ruby and sapphire from Marosely, Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 31, No. 5–8, pp. 171–179; RWHL see pp. 172–173
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Vatomandry

Record No:    387

Geology:    Ruby in alluvial deposits of unknown metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Schmetzer, K. (2001) Rubies from the Vatomandry area, eastern Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 27, No. 7, July, pp. 409–416; RWHL* see pp. 413–414
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Malawi, Chimwadzulu Hill

Record No:    388

Geology:    Corundums in situ in an epidotized amphibolite, embedded in a coarse aggregate of hornblende crystals, which is itself enclosed in a fine-grained granular matrix of epidote and plagioclase

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Henn, U. and Bank, H. (1990) Blaue saphire aus Malawi. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 89–92; RWHL see pp.
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    389

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands. Sapphires occur in alluvial deposits derived from granitic pegmatites, or rarely corundum syenites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1950) The diagnostic importance of inclusions in gemstones. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 2, No. 7, July, pp. 281–303; RWHL* see pp. 285
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Nigeria, Jos, Kaduna province; Mambilla Plateau

Record No:    390

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Henn, U. (1986) Saphire aus Nigeria und von Sta. Terezinha de Goias, Brazilien. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 35, No. 1/2, pp. 15–19; RWHL* see pp.
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Rwanda, Cyangugu

Record No:    391

Geology:    Sapphire in deposits associated with alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Krzemnicki, M.S., Hänni, H.A. et al. (1996) Investigations on sapphires from an alkali basalt, South West Rwanda. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 90–106; RWHL* see pp. 100
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    392

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1940) Characteristics of Ceylon rubies. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 121–124; RWHL see pp. 123–124
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tajikistan, Snezhny

Record No:    393

Geology:    Ruby found in mineralized zone of marbles

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Smith, C.P. (1998) Rubies and pink sapphires from the Pamir Range in Tajikistan, former USSR. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 103–109; RWHL see pp. 104, 107
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Tunduru

Record No:    394

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire of various colors from alluvial deposits of unknown metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Chitty, W. (2009) A Study of Sapphires and Rubies from Tanzania’s Tunduru District. Kingston University, London, BSc Thesis in Gemology and Applied Mineralogy, 32 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 10–12
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Songea

Record No:    395

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in secondary deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 240
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Morogoro

Record No:    396

Geology:    Ruby as alluvial deposits or as lenses in calc-silicate rocks within marbles

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A. and Schmetzer, K. (1991) New rubies from the Morogoro area, Tanza­nia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall, pp. 156–167; RWHL* see pp. 158, 164–165
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Umba

Record No:    397

Geology:    Ruby and sapphire in situ in desilicated pegmatites cutting a serpentinite pipe and from alluvials derived from that pipe

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Zwaan, P.C. (1974) Garnet, corundum, and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanza­nia. Scripta Geologica, Vol. 20, pp. 19–30; RWHL* see pp. 26

Back to top