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Solid Type Country/Origin
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Thailand (Siam), Chanthaburi/Trat

Record No:    398

Geology:    Sapphires and rubies found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Promwongnan, S. and Sutthirat, C. (2019) Mineral inclusions in ruby and sapphire from the Bo Welu gem deposit in Chanthaburi, Thailand. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall, pp. 354–369; RWHL* see pp. 357, 363, 365, 367
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
USA (Montana), Dry Cottonwood, Missouri River, Rock Creek, Yogo

Record No:    399

Geology:    Yogo: Sapphire in situ and from alluvials derived from a lamprophyric rock intruded into limestone; Other: Sapphire in alluvials believed derived from igneous dikes of unknown composition

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 347
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Yen Bai

Record No:    400

Geology:    Rubies found in alluvial Quaternary gravels derived from mineralized marble, or directly from the marble itself

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Khoi, N.N., Sutthirat, C. et al. (2011) Ruby and sapphire from the Tan Huong-Truc Lau area, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 47, No. 3, Fall, pp. 182–195; RWHL* see pp. 188, 190, 193
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Dak Nong

Record No:    401

Geology:    Sapphires found in alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Diep, P.T.M. (2015) Internal characteristics, chemical compounds and spectroscopy of sapphire as single crystals. Mainz University doctorate thesis; 140 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 53–54
Zirconolite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Winza

Record No:    402

Geology:    Ruby from primary and eluvial deposits associated with amphibolitic rock dikes

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Peretti, A., Peretti, F. et al. (2008) Winza rubies identified. Contributions to Gemology, Vol. 7, pp. 1–97; RWHL* see pp. 26, 40
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Tanzania, Winza

Record No:    403

Geology:    Ruby from primary and eluvial deposits associated with amphibolitic rock dikes

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Peretti, A., Peretti, F. et al. (2008) Winza rubies identified. Contributions to Gemology, Vol. 7, pp. 1–97; RWHL* see pp. 26, 39
Chlorite Group - Mostly Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A₅₋₆T₄Z₁₈
    Notes:A = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe³⁺, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH
    Polymorphs:
Tanzania, Winza

Record No:    404

Geology:    Ruby from primary and eluvial deposits associated with amphibolitic rock dikes

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Peretti, A., Peretti, F. et al. (2008) Winza rubies identified. Contributions to Gemology, Vol. 7, pp. 1–97; RWHL* see pp. 26, 47–48
Zirkelite - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Andranondambo

Record No:    405

Geology:    Sapphire in metamorphic skarn-type deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 251
Zoisite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Zoisite Orthorhombic Ca₂Al₃[Si₂O₇][SiO₄]O(OH)
USA (Montana), Rock Creek

Record No:    406

Geology:    Sapphire in alluvials believed derived from igneous dikes of unknown composition

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Buter, E. et al. (2015) Alluvial sapphires from Montana: Inclusions, geochemistry, and indications of a metamorphic origin. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 51, No. 4, Winter, pp. 370–391; RWHL* see pp. 379
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
India (Kashmir), Sumjam

Record No:    407

Geology:    Sapphire in situ and in secondary deposits derived from a pegmatite associated with actinolite-tremolite lenses

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 199
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Mozambique, Montepuez

Record No:    408

Geology:    Primary and secondary ruby associated with amphibolite

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Pardieu, V., Sangsawong, S. et al. (2013) Rubies from the Montepuez area (Mozambique). Gemological Institute of America, October 5, 84 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 42, 66–67
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Myanmar (Burma), Mong Hsu

Record No:    409

Geology:    Ruby occurs in situ in marbles and alluvial deposits derived from the same

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Peretti, A., Mullis, J. et al. (1996) The role of fluorine in the formation of colour zoning in rubies from Mong Hsu, Myanmar (Burma). Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 3–19; RWHL* see pp. 13
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Nigeria, Mambilla

Record No:    411

Geology:    Sapphire in alluvial and residual deposits from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Lotus Gemology’s Hyperion database see pp.
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Pakistan (Kashmir), Batakundi

Record No:    412

Geology:    Ruby disseminated within marble or in veinlets/gash veins sometimes related to micro-shear zones

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Lotus Gemology’s Hyperion inclusion database see pp. A-003-2998-1, A-003-5658-1
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    414

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Vertriest, W., Manorotkul, W. and Hughes, E.B. (2015) Inclusion Identification of Burmese Ruby Using Raman Spectroscopy. GIA/Lotus Gemology, November, unpublished report, 59 pp.; RWHL see pp. 5
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    415

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Vertriest, W., Manorotkul, W. and Hughes, E.B. (2015) Inclusion Identification of Burmese Ruby Using Raman Spectroscopy. GIA/Lotus Gemology, November, unpublished report, 59 pp.; RWHL see pp. 10, 27, 33
Marcasite Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    416

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Vertriest, W., Manorotkul, W. and Hughes, E.B. (2015) Inclusion Identification of Burmese Ruby Using Raman Spectroscopy. GIA/Lotus Gemology, November, unpublished report, 59 pp.; RWHL see pp. 21
Huntite - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    417

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Vertriest, W., Manorotkul, W. and Hughes, E.B. (2015) Inclusion Identification of Burmese Ruby Using Raman Spectroscopy. GIA/Lotus Gemology, November, unpublished report, 59 pp.; RWHL see pp. 44
Aragonite Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    418

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Vertriest, W., Manorotkul, W. and Hughes, E.B. (2015) Inclusion Identification of Burmese Ruby Using Raman Spectroscopy. GIA/Lotus Gemology, November, unpublished report, 59 pp.; RWHL see pp. 59
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    419

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 326
Anatase - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Anatase Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Brookite, Rutile, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    421

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 424–425
Anhydrite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    422

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 204, 373
Halite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
Colombia, Various

Record No:    430

Geology:    Type IIB. Sedimentary: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1953) Inclusions as a Means of Gemstone Identification. Los Angeles, GIA, 220 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 138, 142
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Colombia, Various

Record No:    431

Geology:    Type IIB. Sedimentary: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gubelin, E.J. (1940) Differentiation between Russian and Colombian Emerald. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 3, No. 6, Summer, pp. 89–92; RWHL. see pp. 179
Parisite - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Colombia, Muzo

Record No:    432

Geology:    Type IIB. Sedimentary: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1953) Inclusions as a Means of Gemstone Identification. Los Angeles, GIA, 220 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 139
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Colombia, Various

Record No:    433

Geology:    Type IIB. Sedimentary: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1953) Inclusions as a Means of Gemstone Identification. Los Angeles, GIA, 220 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 153
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Colombia, Various

Record No:    434

Geology:    Type IIB. Sedimentary: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 53, 146, 151
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Colombia, Various

Record No:    435

Geology:    Type 2B. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1948) Gemstone inclusions. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 1, No. 7, July, pp. 7–39; RWHL* see pp. 12
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Colombia, Various

Record No:    436

Geology:    Type 2B. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 439
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Colombia, Various

Record No:    437

Geology:    Type 2B. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 435
Aragonite Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Aragonite Orthorhombic CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Calcite, Vaterite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    438

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Lomthong, P., Schwarz, D. et al. (2019) Spinels from Sri Lanka. InColor, No. 43, Summer, pp. 40–52, RWHL* see pp.
Aragonite Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Aragonite Orthorhombic CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Calcite, Vaterite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Horana

Record No:    439

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Lomthong, P., Schwarz, D. et al. (2019) Spinels from Sri Lanka. InColor, No. 43, Summer, pp. 40–52, RWHL* see pp. 44
Baddeleyite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    440

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423
Baddeleyite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    441

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 181
Böhmite (Boehmite) - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    442

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 692
Brucite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    443

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423, 426–428
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    444

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1969) On the nature of mineral inclusions in gemstones. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 11, No. 5, Jan., pp. 149–192; RWHL* see pp. 173, 178
Böhmite (Boehmite) - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    445

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    446

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 152
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    447

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 152
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    448

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 152
Pyroxene Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    449

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 392
Garnet Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - X₃Z₂(SiO₄)₃
    Notes:X = Mg, Ca, Fe(II), Mn(II), etc.; Z = Al, Fe(III), Cr(III), V(III) etc.; Trace amounts of Sn may replace Fe(III)
    Polymorphs:
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    452

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 256
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    453

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1958) Emeralds from Sandawana. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 6, No. 8, October, pp. 340–354; RWHL. see pp. 352
Graphite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Graphite Hexagonal C
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Chaoite, Diamond, Lonsdaleite
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    454

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 391
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    455

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1953) Inclusions as a Means of Gemstone Identification. Los Angeles, GIA, 220 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 154
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    456

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1953) Inclusions as a Means of Gemstone Identification. Los Angeles, GIA, 220 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 141, 154
Chrysoberyl - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    458

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 367
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    459

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 368
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    460

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 368
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    462

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 370
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    463

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 370
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    464

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 370
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    465

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 258
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Pakistan, Hunza

Record No:    466

Geology:    Spinel in situ in calcitic or dolomitic marble.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1982) Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, ruby and spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall, pp. 123–129; RWHL* see pp. 139
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    467

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 378
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    468

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Malsy, A.-K. and Klemm, L. (2010) Distinction of gem spinels from the Himalayan mountain belt. CHIMIA, Vol. 64, No. 10, pp. 741–746; RWHL see pp. 743
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    469

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Malsy, A.-K. and Klemm, L. (2010) Distinction of gem spinels from the Himalayan mountain belt. CHIMIA, Vol. 64, No. 10, pp. 741–746; RWHL see pp. 743
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Horana

Record No:    470

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Lomthong, P., Schwarz, D. et al. (2019) Spinels from Sri Lanka. InColor, No. 43, Summer, pp. 40–52, RWHL* see pp. 44
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    471

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Malsy, A.-K. and Klemm, L. (2010) Distinction of gem spinels from the Himalayan mountain belt. CHIMIA, Vol. 64, No. 10, pp. 741–746; RWHL see pp. 743
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Horana

Record No:    472

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Lomthong, P., Schwarz, D. et al. (2019) Spinels from Sri Lanka. InColor, No. 43, Summer, pp. 40–52, RWHL* see pp. 44
Chlorite Group - Mostly Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A₅₋₆T₄Z₁₈
    Notes:A = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe³⁺, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH
    Polymorphs:
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    473

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423
Chlorite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Clinochlore Monoclinic Mg₅Al(AlSi₃O₁₀)(OH)₈
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Mostly monoclinic (also triclinic or orthorhombic)
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    474

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Kleismantas, A., Zoysa, G.E. et al. (2017) Chemistry and gemological features of spinels from Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 35th International Gemmological Conference Proceedings, 8–19 October, Windhoek, Namibia, pp. 148–150; RWHL see pp. 150
Diaspore Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Diaspore Orthorhombic AlO(OH)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Böhmite
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    475

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Pardieu, V. (2014) Hunting for "Jedi" spinels in Mogok. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 50, No. 1, Spring, pp. 46–57; RWHL see pp. 55
Diaspore Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Diaspore Orthorhombic AlO(OH)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Böhmite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    476

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 692–693
Diaspore Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Goethite Orthorhombic α-Fe³⁺O(OH)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Feroxyhyte, Lepidocrocite, UM1985-08-OH:Fe
Vietnam,

Record No:    477

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 712
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Balangoda

Record No:    478

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 78–79, 686
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    479

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1969) On the nature of mineral inclusions in gemstones. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 11, No. 5, Jan., pp. 149–192; RWHL* see pp. 178, 190
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Hunza

Record No:    481

Geology:    Spinel in situ in calcitic or dolomitic marble.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1982) Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, ruby and spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall, pp. 123–129; RWHL* see pp. 139
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
India, Ajmer District, Rajasthan

Record No:    482

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Garnet-bearing micaceous schists of the Delhi system, serpentinized peridotites and pegmatites. This rock is predominantly large aggregate of biotite or phlogopite which are partially replaced by chlorite and may be enriched with schorl and clusters of emerald crystals.

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gubelin, E.J. (1951) Some additional data on Indian emeralds. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring, pp. 13–22, map; RWHL see pp. 21–22
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
India, Ajmer District, Rajasthan

Record No:    483

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Garnet-bearing micaceous schists of the Delhi system, serpentinized peridotites and pegmatites. This rock is predominantly large aggregate of biotite or phlogopite which are partially replaced by chlorite and may be enriched with schorl and clusters of emerald crystals.

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 144
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    484

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1956) Emerald from Habachtal. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 5, No. 7, July, pp. 342–361; RWHL see pp. 353, 357–358
Chlorite Group - Mostly Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A₅₋₆T₄Z₁₈
    Notes:A = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe³⁺, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH
    Polymorphs:
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    487

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    488

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    489

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    491

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1991) Die chemischen Eigenschaften der Smaragde III. Habachtal/Osterreich und Uralgebirge/UdSSR. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 40, No. 2/3, pp. 103–143; RWHL see pp. 114
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Ilmenite Trigonal Fe²⁺TiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Wangdaodeite
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    492

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    493

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58–59
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    494

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58–59
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    495

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1956) Emerald from Habachtal. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 5, No. 7, July, pp. 342–361; RWHL see pp. 353, 357
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    496

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Dravite Trigonal Na(Mg₃)Al₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃(OH)₃(OH)
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    497

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1956) Emerald from Habachtal. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 5, No. 7, July, pp. 342–361; RWHL see pp. 353, 357
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    499

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1958) Emeralds from Sandawana. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 6, No. 8, October, pp. 340–354; RWHL. see pp. 352
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal Fex(Nb,Ta)x2 · 4Tix-1O₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    503

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Kanis, J. and Petch, E.J. (1997) Update on emeralds from the Sandawana mines, Zimbabwe. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer, pp. 80–100; RWHL* see pp. 90, 92
Cobaltite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    504

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Kanis, J. and Petch, E.J. (1997) Update on emeralds from the Sandawana mines, Zimbabwe. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer, pp. 80–100; RWHL* see pp. 92
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    505

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Kanis, J. and Petch, E.J. (1997) Update on emeralds from the Sandawana mines, Zimbabwe. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer, pp. 80–100; RWHL* see pp. 90, 92
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - AM²⁺(CO₃)₂
    Notes:A = Ca, Ba; M = Fe²⁺, Mg, Mn, Zn
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    506

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Kanis, J. and Petch, E.J. (1997) Update on emeralds from the Sandawana mines, Zimbabwe. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer, pp. 80–100; RWHL* see pp. 90, 92
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    507

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Kanis, J. and Petch, E.J. (1997) Update on emeralds from the Sandawana mines, Zimbabwe. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer, pp. 80–100; RWHL* see pp. 90, 92
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Zimbabwe, Sandawana

Record No:    508

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in schist as a result of contact metasomatism at the border of ultramafic rocks and rare-element pegmatites during a deformation event, involving late stage magmatic/hydrothermal activity focused by shearing

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Kanis, J. and Petch, E.J. (1997) Update on emeralds from the Sandawana mines, Zimbabwe. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer, pp. 80–100; RWHL* see pp. 92
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Dravite Trigonal Na(Mg₃)Al₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃(OH)₃(OH)
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    509

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Koivua, J.I. (1982) Tourmaline as an inclusion in Zambian emeralds. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 4, Winter, pp. 225–227; RWHL see pp. 225–227
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    510

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 149, 696
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Lang Chap

Record No:    511

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvial Quaternary gravels derived from mineralized marble.

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Malsy, A.-K., Karampelas, S. et al. (2012) Orangey-red to orangey-pink gem spinels from a new deposit at Lang Chap (Tan Huong-Truc Lau), Vietnam. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 33, Nos. 1–4, pp. 19–28; RWHL see pp. 22
Feldspar Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Orthoclase Monoclinic K(AlSi₃O₈)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Kokchetavite, Microcline, Sanidine
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    514

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp.
Feldspar Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Orthoclase Monoclinic K(AlSi₃O₈)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Kokchetavite, Microcline, Sanidine
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    515

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Kleismantas, A., Zoysa, G.E. et al. (2017) Chemistry and gemological features of spinels from Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 35th International Gemmological Conference Proceedings, 8–19 October, Windhoek, Namibia, pp. 148–150; RWHL see pp. 149
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - Na(AlSi₃O₈) to Ca(Al₂Si₂O₈)
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    516

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Malsy, A.-K. and Klemm, L. (2010) Distinction of gem spinels from the Himalayan mountain belt. CHIMIA, Vol. 64, No. 10, pp. 741–746; RWHL see pp. 743
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    519

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Koivula, J.I. (1984) Mineral inclusions in Zambian emeralds. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 15, No. 7, August, pp. 235–239; RWHL see pp. 236–237
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Margarite Monoclinic CaAl₂(Al₂Si₂O₁₀)(OH)₂
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    520

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Graziani, G., Gübelin, E.J. and Lucchesi, S. (1984) Report on the investigation of an emerald from the Kitwe district, Zambia. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 15, No. 7, August, pp. 227–234; RWHL see pp. 231, 233
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    521

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Graziani, G., Gübelin, E.J. and Lucchesi, S. (1984) Report on the investigation of an emerald from the Kitwe district, Zambia. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 15, No. 7, August, pp. 227–234; RWHL see pp. 233
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    522

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 133, 135, 138
Chrysoberyl - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    523

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Graziani, G., Gübelin, E.J. and Lucchesi, S. (1984) Report on the investigation of an emerald from the Kitwe district, Zambia. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 15, No. 7, August, pp. 227–234; RWHL see pp. 231, 233

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