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Solid Type Country/Origin
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    524

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Graziani, G., Gübelin, E.J. and Lucchesi, S. (1984) Report on the investigation of an emerald from the Kitwe district, Zambia. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 15, No. 7, August, pp. 227–234; RWHL see pp. 231, 233
Kaolinite-Serpentine Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    525

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 260
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    526

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Graziani, G., Gübelin, E.J. and Lucchesi, S. (1984) Report on the investigation of an emerald from the Kitwe district, Zambia. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 15, No. 7, August, pp. 227–234; RWHL see pp. 231, 233
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    527

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Koivula, J.I. (1984) Mineral inclusions in Zambian emeralds. Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 15, No. 7, August, pp. 235–239; RWHL see pp. 237–238
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    528

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 134, 137
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    529

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 388
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    530

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 134
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    531

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 134
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    532

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 134
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    533

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 135
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    534

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 134
Chlorite Group - Mostly Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A₅₋₆T₄Z₁₈
    Notes:A = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe³⁺, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH
    Polymorphs:
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    535

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 133, 135
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    536

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    537

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 120, 130, 135
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    538

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 135
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    539

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 135
Baryte (Barite) Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    540

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 135
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Zambia, Kafubu area

Record No:    541

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in primary and secondary deposits associated with biotite-phlogopite schists. Mineralization areas are confined almost entirely to phlogopite reaction zones adjacent to Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins that metasomatically altered Cr-bearing metabasite host rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrána, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.F., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivua, J.I. and Garcia-Guilerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer, pp. 116–148; RWHL* see pp. 130, 135
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    542

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Schwarz, D., Kanis, J. and Kinnaird, J. (1996) Emerald and green beryl from Central Nigeria. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, pp. 117–141; RWHL* see pp. 125, 128
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    543

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Schwarz, D., Kanis, J. and Kinnaird, J. (1996) Emerald and green beryl from Central Nigeria. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, pp. 117–141; RWHL* see pp. 125, 128–129
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Annite Monoclinic KFe²⁺₃(AlSi₃O₁₀)(OH)₂
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    544

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Schwarz, D., Kanis, J. and Kinnaird, J. (1996) Emerald and green beryl from Central Nigeria. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, pp. 117–141; RWHL* see pp. 125, 128–129
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    545

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 184
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    546

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Huong, L.T.-T., Häger, T. et al. (2012) Gemstones from Vietnam: An update. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 3, Fall, pp. 158–176; RWHL* see pp. 166
Garnet Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    547

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1968) Die Edelsteine der Insel Ceylon. Lucerne, privately published, 152 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 85–87
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Ilmenite Trigonal Fe²⁺TiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Wangdaodeite
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    548

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Schwarz, D., Kanis, J. and Kinnaird, J. (1996) Emerald and green beryl from Central Nigeria. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, pp. 117–141; RWHL* see pp. 129
Feldspar Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Orthoclase Monoclinic K(AlSi₃O₈)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Kokchetavite, Microcline, Sanidine
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    549

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D., Kanis, J. and Kinnaird, J. (1996) Emerald and green beryl from Central Nigeria. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, pp. 117–141; RWHL* see pp. 130
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    550

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D., Kanis, J. and Kinnaird, J. (1996) Emerald and green beryl from Central Nigeria. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, pp. 117–141; RWHL* see pp. 130
Monazite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    551

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 361
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    552

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 361
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    553

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D., Kanis, J. and Kinnaird, J. (1996) Emerald and green beryl from Central Nigeria. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, pp. 117–141; RWHL* see pp. 130
Monazite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    555

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Graphite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Graphite Hexagonal C
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Chaoite, Diamond, Lonsdaleite
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    556

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 665, 670
Graphite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Graphite Hexagonal C
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Chaoite, Diamond, Lonsdaleite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    557

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 376, 378
Graphite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Graphite Hexagonal C
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Chaoite, Diamond, Lonsdaleite
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    558

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Koivula, J.I., Kammerling, R.C. and Fritsch, E. (1993) Gem News: Spinel from Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall, pp. 213–214; RWHL see pp. 214
Halite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    559

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Corundum Trigonal Al₂O₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Deltalumite, UM1990-23-O:Al, UM1990-24-O:Al, UM1995-15-O:Al, UM1996-16-O:Al, Unnamed (gamma-alumina)
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    560

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Kleismantas, A., Zoysa, G.E. et al. (2017) Chemistry and gemological features of spinels from Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 35th International Gemmological Conference Proceedings, 8–19 October, Windhoek, Namibia, pp. 148–150; RL see pp. 149
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Okkampitiya

Record No:    561

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Koivula, J.I. and Tannous, M. (2003) Lab Notes: Unusual “red” spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 39, No. 2, Summer, p. 150; RWHL see pp. 150
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    562

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 712
Högbomite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Högbomite Hexagonal (Mg,Fe)₂(Al,Ti)₅O₁₀
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Diaspore
India, Kermunda, Odisha (Orissa) State

Record No:    563

Geology:    Secondary deposits derived from Precambrian khondalite-charnockite-granite gneiss terrain

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2017) Study and investigation of spinel from Kermunda in Odisha, India. International Gemmological Conference, International Gemmological Conference, Windhoek, Namibia, 8–19 October, pp. 62–66; RWHL see pp. 62–63
Högbomite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Mozambique, Cabo Delgado

Record No:    564

Geology:    Spinel associated with amphibolite.

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Boehm, E.W. (2016) Gem Notes: Pink spinel from Mozambique. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 109–111; RWHL see pp. 110–111
Högbomite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Morogoro

Record No:    565

Geology:    Alluvial deposits or as lenses in calc-silicate rocks within marbles.

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Schmetzer, K. and Berger, A. (1992) Lamellar inclusions in spinels from Morogoro area, Tanzania. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 23, No. 2, April, pp. 93–94; RWHL see pp. 93–94
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Khaltaro

Record No:    566

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 376–378
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Khaltaro

Record No:    567

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 376–378
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Pakistan, Khaltaro

Record No:    568

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 377–378
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe2+, Fe3+, Li, Mg2+, Mn2+, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr3+, Fe3+, V3+ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B3+ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Pakistan, Khaltaro

Record No:    569

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 376
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Pakistan, Khaltaro

Record No:    570

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 376
Högbomite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    571

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 712, 714
Humite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Horana, Ratnapura

Record No:    572

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Lomthong, P., Schwarz, D. et al. (2019) Spinels from Sri Lanka. InColor, No. 43, Summer, pp. 40–52, RWHL* see pp. 44
Humite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Lang Chap

Record No:    573

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Malsy, A.-K., Karampelas, S. et al. (2012) Orangey-red to orangey-pink gem spinels from a new deposit at Lang Chap (Tan Huong-Truc Lau), Vietnam. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 33, Nos. 1–4, pp. 19–28; RWHL see pp. 22–23
Humite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    574

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E., Franz, L., Balmer, W. and Krzemnicki, M.S. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423–425, 427–428
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    575

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Feldspar Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Orthoclase Monoclinic K(AlSi₃O₈)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Kokchetavite, Microcline, Sanidine
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    576

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 254
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    577

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 254
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    578

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 379–380
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    579

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 254
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    580

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    581

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360, 362
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Glauconite Monoclinic (K,Na)(Fe³⁺,Al,Mg)₂(Si,Al)₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    582

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Euclase - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Lake Manyara

Record No:    583

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Australia,

Record No:    584

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358–360
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Australia,

Record No:    585

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358–360
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Colombia, Various

Record No:    586

Geology:    Type 2B. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Sphalerite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Colombia, Muzo

Record No:    587

Geology:    Type 2B. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity.

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Colombia, Muzo

Record No:    588

Geology:    Type 2B. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Glauconite Monoclinic (K,Na)(Fe³⁺,Al,Mg)₂(Si,Al)₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Nigeria, Kaduna and Plateau States

Record No:    589

Geology:    Type 1C. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in granitic rocks: Emerald in pegmatitic pods

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Muscovite Monoclinic K₀.₆₅Al₂.₀[Al₀.₆₅Si₃.₃₅O₁₀](OH)₂
Tanzania, Sumbawanga

Record No:    590

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Anhydrite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Sumbawanga

Record No:    591

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Bertrandite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Sumbawanga

Record No:    592

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Euclase - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Sumbawanga

Record No:    593

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Phenakite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Sumbawanga

Record No:    594

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Mozambique, Melela, Maria, Niane

Record No:    595

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Mozambique, Melela, Maria, Niane

Record No:    596

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Mozambique, Melela, Maria, Niane

Record No:    597

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Moroz, I.I. and Eliezri, I.Z. (1999) Mineral inclusions in emeralds from different sources. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 357–363; RWHL see pp. 358, 360
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Mozambique, Melela, Maria, Niane

Record No:    598

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 255
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Mozambique, Melela, Maria, Niane

Record No:    599

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 394
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Mozambique, Melela, Maria, Niane

Record No:    600

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 394–395
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Mozambique, Melela, Maria, Niane

Record No:    601

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 394–395
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Mozambique, Melela, Maria, Niane

Record No:    603

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 395
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    607

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 396–397
Feldspar Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Orthoclase Monoclinic K(AlSi₃O₈)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Kokchetavite, Microcline, Sanidine
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    608

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 396–397
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    609

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 396
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Ilmenite Trigonal Fe²⁺TiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Wangdaodeite
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    610

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 396
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    611

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 153
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    612

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 396
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    613

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 257
Phenakite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    614

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 396
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    615

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 396
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
South Africa, Transvaal

Record No:    616

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in quartz veins in biotite schist

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 396
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite/Phlogopite - K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂/KMg₃(AlSi₃O₁₀)(OH)₂
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    617

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Hänni, H. and Klein, H.H. (1982) Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagaskar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 71–77; RWHL* see pp. 73–74
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    618

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H. and Klein, H.H. (1982) Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagaskar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 71–77; RWHL* see pp. 74
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    620

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H. and Klein, H.H. (1982) Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagaskar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 71–77; RWHL* see pp. 74
Diaspore Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Goethite Orthorhombic α-Fe³⁺O(OH)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Feroxyhyte, Lepidocrocite, UM1985-08-OH:Fe
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    621

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H. and Klein, H.H. (1982) Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagaskar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 71–77; RWHL* see pp. 74
Limonite - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    622

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Campbell, C.C. (1991) A report on one of a number of emeralds from Madagascar. South African Gemmologist, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 8–15; not seen see pp.
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    623

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Hänni, H. and Klein, H.H. (1982) Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagaskar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 71–77; RWHL* see pp. 74
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Ilmenite Trigonal Fe²⁺TiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Wangdaodeite
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    624

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Hänni, H. and Klein, H.H. (1982) Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagaskar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 71–77; RWHL* see pp. 73–74
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    625

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Hänni, H. and Klein, H.H. (1982) Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagaskar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 71–77; RWHL* see pp. 74
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    626

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 97
Feldspar Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Orthoclase Monoclinic K(AlSi₃O₈)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Kokchetavite, Microcline, Sanidine
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    627

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Kleyenstüber, A. (1991) Observation of inclusions in a Madagascar emerald and their possible implications. South African Gemmologist, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 4–9; not seen see pp.
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    628

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 96–97
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    629

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 96–97

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