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Solid Type Country/Origin
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    630

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 96–97
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    631

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 399
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    632

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Dele-Lasir and Poirot (1991) [personal communication to Dietmar Schwarz] see pp.
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    633

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Dele-Lasir and Poirot (1991) [personal communication to Dietmar Schwarz] see pp.
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    634

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Dele-Lasir and Poirot (1991) [personal communication to Dietmar Schwarz] see pp.
Londonite-Rhodizite series Subgroup - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rhodizite Isometric (K,Cs)Al₄Be₄(B,Be)₁₂O₂₈
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    635

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Thomas, A. (1993) The emerald mines of Madagascar. South African Gemmologist, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 3–11; not seen see pp.
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    638

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 97
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    639

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 97–98
Chlorite Group - Mostly Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A₅₋₆T₄Z₁₈
    Notes:A = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe³⁺, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH
    Polymorphs:
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    640

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 98
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    641

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 98
Baryte (Barite) Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    642

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1994) Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal features. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer, pp. 88–101; RWHL* see pp. 98
Phenakite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Mananjary

Record No:    643

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 400
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Russia, Malysheva, Urals

Record No:    644

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald is found in primary deposits in veins of phlogopite schist

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1991) Die chemischen Eigenschaften der Smaragde III. Habachtal/Osterreich und Uralgebirge/UdSSR. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 40, No. 2/3, pp. 103–143; not seen see pp. 114
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite/Phlogopite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂/KMg₃(AlSi₃O₁₀)(OH)₂
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    645

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A., Schwarz, D. and Fischer, M. (1987) The emeralds of the Belmont Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 7/8, pp. 446–456; RWHL* see pp. 451–452
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    646

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A., Schwarz, D. and Fischer, M. (1987) The emeralds of the Belmont Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 7/8, pp. 446–456; RWHL* see pp. 451
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Hematite Trigonal Fe₂O₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    647

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A., Schwarz, D. and Fischer, M. (1987) The emeralds of the Belmont Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 7/8, pp. 446–456; RWHL* see pp. 451
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    648

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A., Schwarz, D. and Fischer, M. (1987) The emeralds of the Belmont Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 7/8, pp. 446–456; RWHL* see pp. 451
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    650

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 405
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    651

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 404
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    652

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A., Schwarz, D. and Fischer, M. (1987) The emeralds of the Belmont Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 7/8, pp. 446–456; RWHL* see pp. 451
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    653

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A., Schwarz, D. and Fischer, M. (1987) The emeralds of the Belmont Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 7/8, pp. 446–456; RWHL* see pp. 451
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    656

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 246
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Brazil, Itabira-Nova Era Region (Belmont, Capoeirana, Piteiras Mines)

Record No:    657

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A., Schwarz, D. and Fischer, M. (1987) The emeralds of the Belmont Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 7/8, pp. 446–456; RWHL* see pp. 451
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    658

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Hänni, H.A. and Kerez, C.J. (1983) Neues vom Smaragd-Vorkommen von Sta. Terezinha de Goiás, Goiás, Brasilien. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 50–58; RWHL see pp. 54–56
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite/Phlogopite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂/KMg₃(AlSi₃O₁₀)(OH)₂
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    660

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Bank, H. and Petsch, E. (1982) Über ein neues Vorkommen von Smaragd bei Santa Terezinha, Goyaz, Brasilien. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 89–90; seen see pp.
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    661

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Cassedanne, J.P. and Sauer, D.A. (1984) The Santa Terezinha de Goiás emerald deposit. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring, pp. 4–13; RWHL* see pp. 12
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    662

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 410
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    663

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Cassedanne, J.P. and Sauer, D.A. (1984) The Santa Terezinha de Goiás emerald deposit. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring, pp. 4–13; RWHL* see pp. 12
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    664

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Cassedanne, J.P. and Sauer, D.A. (1984) The Santa Terezinha de Goiás emerald deposit. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring, pp. 4–13; RWHL* see pp. 12
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    665

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1987) Esmeraldas-Inclusões em gemas. Imprensa Universitária UFOP, Ouro Preto/MG, 450 + XI pp.; not seen see pp.
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Ilmenite Trigonal Fe²⁺TiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Wangdaodeite
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    666

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Cassedanne, J.P. and Sauer, D.A. (1984) The Santa Terezinha de Goiás emerald deposit. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring, pp. 4–13; RWHL* see pp. 12
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    667

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    668

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Chalcopyrite Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    669

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Pentlandite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    670

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Cubanite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Cubanite Orthorhombic CuFe₂S₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Isocubanite
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    671

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Mackinawite - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Mackinawite Tetragonal (Fe,Ni)₉S₈
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Isocubanite
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    672

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Anatase - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Anatase Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Brookite, Rutile, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    675

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Aeschynite Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    676

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Diaspore Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Goethite Orthorhombic α-Fe³⁺O(OH)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Feroxyhyte, Lepidocrocite, UM1985-08-OH:Fe
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    677

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    678

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    679

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    680

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    681

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    682

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Xenotime Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    683

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Scheelite Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    684

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Margarite Monoclinic CaAl₂(Al₂Si₂O₁₀)(OH)₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Isocubanite
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    685

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Zoisite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Zoisite Orthorhombic Ca₂Al₃[Si₂O₇][SiO₄]O(OH)
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    688

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    689

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    690

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1956) Emerald from Habachtal. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 5, No. 7, July, pp. 342–361; RWHL see pp. 353, 357
Phenakite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    691

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Microcline Triclinic K(AlSi₃O₈)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Kokchetavite, Orthoclase, Sanidine
Austria, Habach Valley

Record No:    693

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with emerald mined in primary deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks (greenschist to granulite facies). Rarely Type 2D (metamorphosed Type 1 or hidden-granitic intrusion-related)

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Grundmann, G. (1991) Smaragd. extra-LAPiS, No. 1, Münich, Christian Weise Verlag, RWHL* see pp. 58
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Ethiopia, Halo-Shakiso

Record No:    694

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds are found in a reaction zone between a pegmatite and a mafic host rock

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Renfro, N., Sun, Z., Nemeth, M., Vertriest, W., Raynaud, V. and Weeramonkhonlert, V. (2017) Gem News International: A new discovery of emeralds from Ethiopia. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 53, No. 1, Spring, pp. 114–116; RWHL see pp. 115
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Ethiopia, Halo-Shakiso

Record No:    695

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds are found in a reaction zone between a pegmatite and a mafic host rock

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Vertriest, W. and Wongrawang, P. (2018) A gemological description of Ethiopian emeralds. InColor, pp. 73–75; RWHL see pp. 73
Bertrandite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Ethiopia, Halo-Shakiso

Record No:    696

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds are found in a reaction zone between a pegmatite and a mafic host rock

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Vertriest, W. and Wongrawang, P. (2018) A gemological description of Ethiopian emeralds. InColor, pp. 73–75; RWHL see pp. 73
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Ethiopia, Halo-Shakiso

Record No:    697

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds are found in a reaction zone between a pegmatite and a mafic host rock

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Vertriest, W. and Wongrawang, P. (2018) A gemological description of Ethiopian emeralds. InColor, pp. 73–75; RWHL see pp. 73
Chlorite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Clinochlore Monoclinic Mg₅Al(AlSi₃O₁₀)(OH)₈
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Mostly monoclinic (also triclinic or orthorhombic)
Ethiopia, Halo-Shakiso

Record No:    698

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds are found in a reaction zone between a pegmatite and a mafic host rock

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Vertriest, W. and Wongrawang, P. (2018) A gemological description of Ethiopian emeralds. InColor, pp. 73–75; RWHL see pp. 73
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Ethiopia, Halo-Shakiso

Record No:    699

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emeralds are found in a reaction zone between a pegmatite and a mafic host rock

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Vertriest, W. and Wongrawang, P. (2018) A gemological description of Ethiopian emeralds. InColor, pp. 73–75; RWHL see pp. 73
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    700

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Lima Jr., E.A. and Deus, W.T. (1984) Gemas no estrado de Goiás: ocorrências e estudos gemológicos. XXXIII Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Rio de Janeiro, In: ANAIS… pp. 5027–5039; not seen see pp.
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    701

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Cassedanne, J.P. and Sauer, D.A. (1984) The Santa Terezinha de Goiás emerald deposit. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring, pp. 4–13; RWHL* see pp. 12
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    703

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Barros, J.C. and Kinnaird, J.A. (1987) Emeralds from Goiás State – Brazil. XXI International Gemmological Conference, Abstracts, Rio de Janeiro, seen see pp.
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    704

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Cassedanne, J.P. and Sauer, D.A. (1984) The Santa Terezinha de Goiás emerald deposit. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring, pp. 4–13; RWHL* see pp. 12
Pentlandite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    705

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. (1987) Esmeraldas-Inclusões em gemas. Imprensa Universitária UFOP, Ouro Preto/MG, 450 + XI pp.; not seen see pp.
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    706

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Barros, J.C. and Kinnaird, J.A. (1987) Emeralds from Goiás State – Brazil. XXI International Gemmological Conference, Abstracts, Rio de Janeiro, seen see pp.
Garnet Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - X₃Z₂(SiO₄)₃
    Notes:X = Mg, Ca, Fe(II), Mn(II), etc.; Z = Al, Fe(III), Cr(III), V(III) etc.; Trace amounts of Sn may replace Fe(III)
    Polymorphs:
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    708

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Barros, J.C. and Kinnaird, J.A. (1987) Emeralds from Goiás State – Brazil. XXI International Gemmological Conference, Abstracts, Rio de Janeiro, seen see pp.
Baryte (Barite) Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    709

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • César-Mendes, J.C. and Svisero, D.P. (1988) As inclusões cristalinas e fluidas da esmeralda de Santa Terezinha de Goiás seu significado geológico. XXXV Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Belém, IN: ANAIS… v. 1, pp. 445–457; not seen see pp.
Patrónite - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    710

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • César-Mendes, J.C. and Svisero, D.P. (1988) As inclusões cristalinas e fluidas da esmeralda de Santa Terezinha de Goiás seu significado geológico. XXXV Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Belém, IN: ANAIS… v. 1, pp. 445–457; not seen see pp.
Diaspore Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Goethite Orthorhombic α-Fe³⁺O(OH)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Feroxyhyte, Lepidocrocite, UM1985-08-OH:Fe
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    711

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Cassedanne, J.P. and Sauer, D.A. (1984) The Santa Terezinha de Goiás emerald deposit. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring, pp. 4–13; RWHL* see pp. 12
Fluorite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Australia, Emmaville/Torrington, NSW

Record No:    712

Geology:    Type 1B: Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Brown, G. (1984) Australia’s first emeralds. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 19, No. 4, October, pp. 320–335; RWHL* see pp. 332, 334
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Australia, Emmaville/Torrington, NSW

Record No:    713

Geology:    Type 1B: Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Brown, G. (1984) Australia’s first emeralds. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 19, No. 4, October, pp. 320–335; RWHL* see pp. 333–334
Diaspore Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
Brazil, Barra Velha, Santa Catarina

Record No:    714

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with granulite complexes

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12–13
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Brazil, Barra Velha, Santa Catarina

Record No:    715

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with granulite complexes

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12
Monazite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Barra Velha, Santa Catarina

Record No:    716

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with granulite complexes

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12–13
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Barra Velha, Santa Catarina

Record No:    717

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with granulite complexes

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Brazil, Barra Velha, Santa Catarina

Record No:    718

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with granulite complexes

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12
Chlorite Group - Mostly Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A₅₋₆T₄Z₁₈
    Notes:A = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe³⁺, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Brazil, Barra Velha, Santa Catarina

Record No:    719

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with granulite complexes

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Corundum Trigonal Al₂O₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Deltalumite, UM1990-23-O:Al, UM1990-24-O:Al, UM1995-15-O:Al, UM1996-16-O:Al, Unnamed (gamma-alumina)
Brazil, Barra Velha, Santa Catarina

Record No:    720

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with granulite complexes

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Zircon Tetragonal Zr(SiO₄)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Deltalumite, UM1990-23-O:Al, UM1990-24-O:Al, UM1995-15-O:Al, UM1996-16-O:Al, Unnamed (gamma-alumina)
Brazil, Caputira, Campo Belo, Palmeiras, Indaiá, Minas Gerais State

Record No:    721

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12, 14
Sillimanite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Sillimanite Orthorhombic Al₂(SiO₄)O
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Andalusite, Kyanite
Brazil, Indaiá, Minas Gerais State

Record No:    722

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12, 14
Kyanite - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Kyanite Triclinic Al₂(SiO₄)O
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Andalusite, Sillimanite
Brazil, Indaiá, Minas Gerais State

Record No:    723

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Brazil, Caputira, Minas Gerais State

Record No:    724

Geology:    Alluvial deposits associated with metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 12
Halite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Santa Terezinha de Goiás

Record No:    725

Geology:    Type 2A. Tectonic-metamorphic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Emeralds in a mica schist not associated with pegmatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L., Pulz, G.M., Acauan, R.B., Brum, T.M.M. and Juchem, P.L. (2001) Inclusões sólidas e fluidas da esmeralda de Campos Verdes, Estado de Goiás, Brasil Central: dados de microscopia eletrô- nica de varredura e de luz transmitida. Sociedad Uruguaia de Gelogia, XI Congreso Latinoamericano de Geología, III Congreso Uruguayo de Geología, Montevidéu, 12–16 November, 1 CD-ROM; not seen see pp.
Halite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    726

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Brazil, Pirenópolis, Goiás

Record No:    729

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 8
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Pirenópolis, Goiás

Record No:    730

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 8
Copper Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Pirenópolis, Goiás

Record No:    731

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 8
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    734

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    735

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite/Phlogopite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂/KMg₃(AlSi₃O₁₀)(OH)₂
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    736

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    737

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    738

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    739

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    740

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Diaspore Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Goethite Orthorhombic α-Fe³⁺O(OH)
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Feroxyhyte, Lepidocrocite, UM1985-08-OH:Fe
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    742

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Feldspar Group - Orthorhomic, Monoclinic or Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - Silicates
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    743

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Chlorite Group - Mostly Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A₅₋₆T₄Z₁₈
    Notes:A = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe³⁺, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH
    Polymorphs:
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    744

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    749

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    750

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    751

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7

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