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Solid Type Country/Origin
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    752

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Lepidocrocite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Socotó, Bahia State

Record No:    754

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magnamtic related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultra-mafic rocks: Pegmatite-aplite-quartz-greisen veins, pods, metasomatites

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Duarte, L.d.C., Juchem, P.L., Pulz, G.M., Brum, T.M.M.d., Chodur, N., Liccardo, A., Fischer, A.C. and Acauan, R.B. (2003) Aplicações de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e sistema de energia dispersiva (EDS) no estudo de gemas: exemplos brasileiros. Pesquisas em Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, Sept.–Dec., pp. 3–15; RWHL* see pp. 7
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    756

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Bowersox, G.W., Snee, L.W., Foord, E.E. and Seal, R.R. (1991) Emeralds of the Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring, pp. 26–39; RWHL* see pp. 35
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    757

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Bowersox, G.W., Snee, L.W., Foord, E.E. and Seal, R.R. (1991) Emeralds of the Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring, pp. 26–39; RWHL* see pp. 35
Limonite
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Limonite (Fe,O,OH,H₂O)
    Notes:Currently used for unidentified massive hydroxides and oxides of iron, with no visible crystals, and a yellow-brown streak. 'Limonite' is most commonly the mineral species goethite, but can also consist of varying proportions of lepidocrocite, hisingerite, pitticite, jarosite group species, maghemite, hematite, etc.
    Polymorphs:
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    758

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Bowersox, G.W., Snee, L.W., Foord, E.E. and Seal, R.R. (1991) Emeralds of the Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring, pp. 26–39; RWHL* see pp. 35
Rhombohedral Carbonate Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - (Ca/Mg/Fe/Mn etc)CO₃
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    759

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Bowersox, G.W., Snee, L.W., Foord, E.E. and Seal, R.R. (1991) Emeralds of the Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring, pp. 26–39; RWHL* see pp. 35
Feldspar Group - Orthorhomic, Monoclinic or Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - Silicates
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    760

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Bowersox, G.W., Snee, L.W., Foord, E.E. and Seal, R.R. (1991) Emeralds of the Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring, pp. 26–39; RWHL* see pp. 35
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    761

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1982) Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, ruby and spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall, pp. 123–129; RWHL* see pp. 131
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    762

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1982) Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, ruby and spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall, pp. 123–129; RWHL* see pp. 130
Chlorite Group - Mostly Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A₅₋₆T₄Z₁₈
    Notes:A = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe³⁺, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH
    Polymorphs:
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    763

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 419, 421–422
Dolomite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    765

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 421, 424
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    766

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 421
Pyroxene Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    767

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 421
Cobaltite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    768

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 422–423
Pentlandite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    769

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 422
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    770

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 422, 424
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Talc Triclinic Mg₃Si₄O₁₀(OH)₂
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    771

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 425
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    772

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Pardieu, V. (2009) Emeralds from the Silk Road countries – A comparison with Colombia. InColor, No. 12, Fall/Winter, pp. 38–43; RWHL. see pp. 40
Tourmaline Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified - A(D₃)G₆(Si₆O₁₈)(BO₃)₃X₃Z
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Li, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr³⁺, Fe³⁺, V³⁺ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B³⁺ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    773

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Pardieu, V. (2009) Emeralds from the Silk Road countries – A comparison with Colombia. InColor, No. 12, Fall/Winter, pp. 38–43; RWHL. see pp. 39–40
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
China, Davdar, Xinjiang Province

Record No:    774

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Blauwet, D., Quinn, E.P. and Muhlmeister, S. (2005) Gem News International: New emerald deposit in Xinjiang, China. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 41, No. 1, Spring, pp. 56–57; RWHL see pp. 57
Monazite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    775

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Pardieu, V. (2009) Emeralds from the Silk Road countries – A comparison with Colombia. InColor, No. 12, Fall/Winter, pp. 38–43; RWHL see pp. 42
Childrenite-Eosphorite Subgroup - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Afghanistan, Panjshir Valley

Record No:    776

Geology:    Type 2C: Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in metamorphic rocks

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Pardieu, V. (2009) Emeralds from the Silk Road countries – A comparison with Colombia. InColor, No. 12, Fall/Winter, pp. 38–43; RWHL see pp. 42
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Muscovite Monoclinic KAl₂(AlSi₃O₁₀)(OH)₂
    Notes:A = Ca, Na, K, Pb or is vacant (large cations); D = Al, Fe2+, Fe3+, Li, Mg2+, Mn2+, Ti (intermediate to small cations - in valence balancing combinations when the A site is vacant); G = Al, Cr3+, Fe3+, V3+ (small cations); Si can sometimes have minor Al and/or B3+ substitution; X = O and/or OH; Z = F, O and/or OH.
    Polymorphs:
Pakistan, Khaltaro

Record No:    777

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 416
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    778

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 416
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    779

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2008) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 3. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 672 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 416
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    780

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Pardieu, V. (2009) Emeralds from the Silk Road countries – A comparison with Colombia. InColor, No. 12, Fall/Winter, pp. 38–43; RWHL see pp. 42
Kaolinite-Serpentine Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Antigorite Monoclinic Mg₃(Si₂O₅)(OH)₄
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Pakistan, Swat

Record No:    781

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type 1 deposits or hidden granitic instrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schwarz, D. and Pardieu, V. (2009) Emeralds from the Silk Road countries – A comparison with Colombia. InColor, No. 12, Fall/Winter, pp. 38–43; RWHL see pp. 42
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Egypt, West of Marsa Alam

Record No:    782

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type I deposits or hidden- granitic intrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Grubessi, O., Aurisicchio, C. and Castiglioni, A. (1990) The Pharoahs’ forgotten emerald mines. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, No. 3, July, pp. 164–177; RWHL see pp. 170
Beryl Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Beryl Hexagonal Be₃Al₂(Si₆O₁₈)
Egypt, West of Marsa Alam

Record No:    787

Geology:    Type 2D: Metamorphosed Type I deposits or hidden- granitic intrusion-related and some unclassified deposits

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Grubessi, O., Aurisicchio, C. and Castiglioni, A. (1990) The Pharoahs’ forgotten emerald mines. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, No. 3, July, pp. 164–177; RWHL see pp. 170
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    788

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands.

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E., Franz, L., Balmer, W. and Krzemnicki, M.S. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423–427, 430
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Ilmenite Trigonal Fe²⁺TiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Wangdaodeite
India, Kermunda, Odisha (Orissa) State

Record No:    789

Geology:    Secondary deposits derived from Precambrian khondalite-charnockite-granite gneiss terrain

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2017) Study and investigation of spinel from Kermunda in Odisha, India. International Gemmological Conference, International Gemmological Conference, Windhoek, Namibia, 8–19 October, pp. 62–66; RWHL see pp. 63–65
Ilmenite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Ilmenite Trigonal Fe²⁺TiO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Wangdaodeite
Tanzania, Morogoro

Record No:    790

Geology:    Spinel as alluvial deposits or as lenses in calc-silicate rocks within marbles

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 680
Limonite
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    793

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 378
Feldspar Group - Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Fazenda Bonfim region, Rio Grande do Norte

Record No:    794

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Jacob, D.E., Häger, T., Neto, M.T.O.C. and Kanis, J. (2012) Emeralds from the Fazenda Bonfim region, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 1, Spring, pp. 2–17; RWHL* see pp. 8–10
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Fazenda Bonfim region, Rio Grande do Norte

Record No:    795

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Jacob, D.E., Häger, T., Neto, M.T.O.C. and Kanis, J. (2012) Emeralds from the Fazenda Bonfim region, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 1, Spring, pp. 2–17; RWHL* see pp. 8–10
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Brazil, Fazenda Bonfim region, Rio Grande do Norte

Record No:    796

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Jacob, D.E., Häger, T., Neto, M.T.O.C. and Kanis, J. (2012) Emeralds from the Fazenda Bonfim region, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 1, Spring, pp. 2–17; RWHL* see pp. 8–9
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Brazil, Fazenda Bonfim region, Rio Grande do Norte

Record No:    797

Geology:    Type 1A. Tectonic-magmatic-related, with subtypes hosted in mafic-ultramafic rocks: Emerald occurs in biotite schists at the contact zone between basic-ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites subjected to alkaline metasomatic alteration

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Zwaan, J.C., Jacob, D.E., Häger, T., Neto, M.T.O.C. and Kanis, J. (2012) Emeralds from the Fazenda Bonfim region, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 1, Spring, pp. 2–17; RWHL* see pp. 8–10
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Cavity-Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS2
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Norway, Byrud (Eidsvoll)

Record No:    804

Geology:    Type 1C:

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Rondeau, B., Fritsch, E., Peucat, J.-J., Nordrum, F.S. and Groat, L. (2008) Characterization of emeralds from a historical deposit: Byrud (Eidsvoll), Norway. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 44, No. 2, Summer, pp. 108–122; RWHL* see pp. 113
Limonite
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    807

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 686
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Biotite Monoclinic K(Fe²⁺/Mg)₂(Al/Fe³⁺/Mg)([Si/Al]Si₂O₁₀)(OH/F)₂
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    808

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Kleismantas, A., Zoysa, G.E. et al. (2017) Chemistry and gemological features of spinels from Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 35th International Gemmological Conference Proceedings, 8–19 October, Windhoek, Namibia, pp. 148–150; RWHL see pp. 149
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Morogoro

Record No:    809

Geology:    Spinel as alluvial deposits or as lenses in calc-silicate rocks within marbles

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp. RWHL* see pp. 682
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    810

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Koivula, J.I., Kammerling, R.C. and Fritsch, E. (1993) Gem News: Spinel from Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall, pp. 213–214; RWHL see pp. 214
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    811

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Kleismantas, A., Zoysa, G.E. et al. (2017) Chemistry and gemological features of spinels from Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 35th International Gemmological Conference Proceedings, 8–19 October, Windhoek, Namibia, pp. 148–150; RWHL see pp. 149
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
India, Kermunda, Odisha (Orissa) State

Record No:    812

Geology:    Secondary deposits derived from Precambrian khondalite-charnockite-granite gneiss terrain

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2017) Study and investigation of spinel from Kermunda in Odisha, India. International Gemmological Conference, International Gemmological Conference, Windhoek, Namibia, 8–19 October, pp. 62–66; RWHL see pp. 63
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    813

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1969) On the nature of mineral inclusions in gemstones. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 11, No. 5, Jan., pp. 149–192; RWHL* see pp. 169–170
Mica Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    814

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 105, 145, 662, 697, 702
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    816

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 672
Mica Group - Monoclinic or Triclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Not Specified -
Afghanistan, Badakhshan

Record No:    818

Geology:    Unknown

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Boehm, E.W. (2017) Gem Notes: Purple spinels from Badakhshan, Afghanistan. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 35, No. 8, October, pp. 694–697; RWHL see pp. 696
Molybdenite Group - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Molybdenite Hexagonal MoS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Molybdenite-2H (common) and Molybdenite-3R (rare)
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    819

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423
Olivine Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Forsterite Orthorhombic Mg₂SiO₄
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Ringwoodite, Wadsleyite
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    820

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    2: Obtained in a market near the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1973) Internal World of Gemstones. Zürich, ABC Verlag, reprinted 1983, 234 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 183
Olivine Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Forsterite Orthorhombic Mg₂SiO₄
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Ringwoodite, Wadsleyite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    821

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 151, 702
Olivine Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Forsterite Orthorhombic Mg₂SiO₄
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Ringwoodite, Wadsleyite
Tanzania, Morogoro

Record No:    822

Geology:    Spinel as alluvial deposits or as lenses in calc-silicate rocks within marbles

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 682
Periclase Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    823

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423, 427–428
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    825

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 670
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    826

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 702
Pyrite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Pyrite Isometric FeS₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Marcasite
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    827

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:   

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Huong, L.T.-T., Häger, T. et al. (2012) Gemstones from Vietnam: An update. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 3, Fall, pp. 158–176; RWHL* see pp. 166
Pyroxene Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    828

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Kleismantas, A., Zoysa, G.E. et al. (2017) Chemistry and gemological features of spinels from Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 35th International Gemmological Conference Proceedings, 8–19 October, Windhoek, Namibia, pp. 148–150; RWHL see pp.
Pyroxene Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
Madagascar, Southern Madagascar

Record No:    829

Geology:    Unknown

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Schmetzer, K., Gübelin, E. et al. (2000) Oriented inclusions in spinels from Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 229–232; RWHL see pp. 230–232
Pyroxene Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    830

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Myint Myat Phyo, Bieler, E. et al. (2019) Spinel from Mogok, Myanmar—A detailed inclusion study by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning gemselectron microscopy. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 418–435; RWHL* see pp. 423–425, 427–428, 434
Pyroxene Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    831

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • Kleismantas, A., Zoysa, G.E. et al. (2017) Chemistry and gemological features of spinels from Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 35th International Gemmological Conference Proceedings, 8–19 October, Windhoek, Namibia, pp. 148–150; RWHL see pp. 149
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    832

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 697, 703
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    833

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 379
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    834

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 699
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
India, Kermunda, Odisha (Orissa) State

Record No:    835

Geology:    Secondary deposits derived from Precambrian khondalite-charnockite-granite gneiss terrain

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2017) Study and investigation of spinel from Kermunda in Odisha, India. International Gemmological Conference, International Gemmological Conference, Windhoek, Namibia, 8–19 October, pp. 62–66; RWHL see pp. 63–64
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Madagascar, Ilakaka area

Record No:    867

Geology:    Spinel in alluvial deposits of unknown metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Milisenda, C., Henn, U. et al. (2001) New gemstone occurrences in the south-west of Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 27, No. 7, July, pp. 385–394; RWHL* see pp. 392–393
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    868

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 379
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    869

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 379
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Pakistan, Hunza

Record No:    870

Geology:    Spinel in situ in calcitic or dolomitic marble

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1982) Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, ruby and spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall, pp. 123–129; RWHL* see pp. 139
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Tanzania, Morogoro

Record No:    871

Geology:    Ruby as alluvial deposits or as lenses in calc-silicate rocks within marbles

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 678, 680–683
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    872

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Huong, L.T.-T., Häger, T. et al. (2012) Gemstones from Vietnam: An update. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 3, Fall, pp. 158–176; RWHL* see pp. 166
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    873

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvials or in mineralized marble. Red spinel typically comes from pure white calcitic/dolomitic marble, sometimes associated with clinochlore or phlogopite. Violet, purple, brown and blue spinels are found in marble with a more complex mineral assemblage containing clinohumite, pargasite, clinochlore and forsterite

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Koivula, J.I., Kammerling, R.C. and Fritsch, E. (1993) Gem News: Spinel from Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall, pp. 213–214; RWHL see pp. 214
Sillimanite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Sillimanite Orthorhombic Al₂(SiO₄)O
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Andalusite, Kyanite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    874

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Schmetzer, K. (1988) Oriented lath-like inclusions of a new type of spinel. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 69–72; RWHL see pp. 69–72
Gamma alumina
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Gamma alumina -
Sodalite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Lazurite Isometric Na₆Ca₂(Al₆Si₆O₂₄)(SO₄,S,S₂,S₃,Cl,OH)₂
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    877

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Renfro, N. and Koivula, J.I. (2016) G&G Micro-World: Lazurite in spinel. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, No. 1, Spring, pp. 112–113; RWHL see pp. 112–113
Pyroxene Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Madagascar, Ilakaka

Record No:    879

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 673
Pyrrhotite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
No Origin,

Record No:    882

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Schubnel, H.-J. (1967) Determination of solid inclusions in gemstones. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 10, No. 6, April, pp. 189–193; RWHL see pp. 189
Hematite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Corundum Trigonal Al₂O₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Deltalumite, UM1990-23-O:Al, UM1990-24-O:Al, UM1995-15-O:Al, UM1996-16-O:Al, Unnamed (gamma-alumina)
Sulphur Group - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Sulphur Orthorhombic S₈
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Rosickýite, Sulphur-β
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    886

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 234
Graphite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Graphite Hexagonal C
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Chaoite, Diamond, Lonsdaleite
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    887

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 105
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Madagascar, Vatomandry

Record No:    888

Geology:    Ruby in alluvial deposits of unknown origin

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 121
No Origin,

Record No:    890

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 1. Basel, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 381–382
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    891

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 1. Basel, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 86
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    892

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • see pp.
Copper Chloride
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Copper Chloride -
Russia,

Record No:    893

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 58
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    894

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • see pp.
Platinum - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
United States,

Record No:    895

Geology:   

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:   

References:
  • see pp.
Quartz - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Quartz Trigonal SiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Coesite, Cristobalite, Keatite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Colombia,

Record No:    896

Geology:    Type 2B. Tectonic-metamorphic-related, with subtypes hosted in sedimentary rocks: Emerald occurs in extensional carbonate-silicate-pyrite veins, pockets and breccia in an Early Cretaceous black shale-limestone succession. The emerald formed via hydrothermal growth associated with tectonic activity

Origin Confidence:    5: Unknown

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 182
Rutile Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
  • Rutile Tetragonal TiO₂
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Riesite, TiO2 II, UM1991-08-O:Ti
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    897

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands. Sapphires occur in alluvial deposits derived from granitic pegmatites, or rarely corundum syenites

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • see pp.
Glass - Amorphous
Solid Type:  Solid-Secondary
Thailand/Cambodia, Chanthaburi, Trat, Pailin

Record No:    899

Geology:    Rubies found in eluvial and alluvial gravels derived from alkali basalts

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • see pp.
Andalusite - Orthorhombic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Andalusite Orthorhombic Al₂(SiO₄)O
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Kyanite, Sillimanite
Madagascar, Ilakaka area

Record No:    900

Geology:    Ruby & sapphire of virtually all colors in alluvial deposits of unknown metamorphic origin

Origin Confidence:    1: Collected at the mines

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • In press, Lotus Gemology Hyperion Database see pp.
Graphite - Hexagonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Graphite Hexagonal C
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Chaoite, Diamond, Lonsdaleite
Pakistan (Kashmir), Batakundi

Record No:    901

Geology:    Ruby disseminated within marble or in veinlets/gash veins sometimes related to micro-shear zones

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Pardieu, V., Thirangoon, K., Lomthong, P., Saeseaw, S., Thanachakaphad, J. and Du Toit, G. (2009) Sapphires reportedly from Batakundi/Basil area: A preliminary examination and a comparison with rubies and pink sapphires from other deposits in Central Asia. Gemological Institute of America, Bangkok, 12 May, 34 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 15, 19–20, 23–24
Calcite Group - Trigonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
  • Calcite Trigonal CaCO₃
    Notes:
    Polymorphs:Aragonite, Vaterite
Pakistan (Kashmir), Batakundi

Record No:    902

Geology:    Ruby disseminated within marble or in veinlets/gash veins sometimes related to micro-shear zones

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Pardieu, V., Thirangoon, K., Lomthong, P., Saeseaw, S., Thanachakaphad, J. and Du Toit, G. (2009) Sapphires reportedly from Batakundi/Basil area: A preliminary examination and a comparison with rubies and pink sapphires from other deposits in Central Asia. Gemological Institute of America, Bangkok, 12 May, 34 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 15
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Pakistan (Kashmir), Batakundi

Record No:    903

Geology:    Ruby disseminated within marble or in veinlets/gash veins sometimes related to micro-shear zones

Origin Confidence:    3: Obtained in a secondary market

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Pardieu, V., Thirangoon, K., Lomthong, P., Saeseaw, S., Thanachakaphad, J. and Du Toit, G. (2009) Sapphires reportedly from Batakundi/Basil area: A preliminary examination and a comparison with rubies and pink sapphires from other deposits in Central Asia. Gemological Institute of America, Bangkok, 12 May, 34 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 15, 23
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    904

Geology:    Ruby occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Rare

References:
  • belin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 46, 185
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    905

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of corundum

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. (1957) A contribution to the genealogy of inclusions. Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 6, No. 1, January, pp. 1–47; RWHL* see pp. 6, 44–45
Titanite Group - Monoclinic
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Vietnam, Luc Yen

Record No:    906

Geology:    Spinels found in alluvial Quaternary gravels derived from mineralized marble

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Unknown

References:
  • Malsy, A.-K. and Klemm, L. (2010) Distinction of gem spinels from the Himalayan mountain belt. CHIMIA, Vol. 64, No. 10, pp. 741–746; RWHL see pp. 743
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Myanmar (Burma), Mogok

Record No:    907

Geology:    Spinel occurs in contact or regionally metamorphosed limestones cut by clay bands

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 662, 671
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Sri Lanka (Ceylon),

Record No:    908

Geology:    Alluvial gravels derived from source rocks formed via granulite facies metamorphism. It is thought that intrusions of basic charnockites of basaltic chemistry into the Al-rich sediments caused their desilication, resulting in the formation of spinel

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (1986) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich, Switzerland, ABC Edition, 532 pp.; RWHL* see pp. 381
Uraninite Group - Isometric
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
Tanzania, Morogoro

Record No:    909

Geology:    Spinel as alluvial deposits or as lenses in calc-silicate rocks within marbles

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Occasional

References:
  • Gübelin, E.J. and Koivula, J.I. (2005) Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones, Volume 2. Basel, Switzerland, Opinio Publishers, 830 pp., RWHL* see pp. 685
Zircon Group - Tetragonal
Solid Type:  Solid–Primary
India, Kermunda, Odisha (Orissa) State

Record No:    910

Geology:    Secondary deposits derived from Precambrian khondalite-charnockite-granite gneiss terrain

Origin Confidence:    4: Submitted to lab for testing/research

Frequency Seen:    Common

References:
  • Panjikar, J. and Panjikar, A. (2017) Study and investigation of spinel from Kermunda in Odisha, India. International Gemmological Conference, International Gemmological Conference, Windhoek, Namibia, 8–19 October, pp. 62–66; RWHL see pp.

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